Wonder in Wonders : The great pyramid of Giza
The great pyramid of Giza (also known as the pyramid of Khufu or Cheops pyramid) is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza necropolis bordering what today is El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the only one that remains almost intact.
A brand is an indoor room is the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu and the band’s work, based on a reference to the naming of the pyramid a closing period from 10 to 20 years around 2560 B.C. 146.5 meters (481) was the great pyramid in the world for over 3,800 years artificial structure to a mausoleum was created as Egyptologists believe. Originally, the great Pyramid was cover by cover of stones forming a smooth outer surface, what you see today is the underlying structure of the nucleus. Some of the grounds of Pierre that one time that structure are visible around the base. There were many scientific theories and others on great Pyramid building techniques the most accepted construction hypotheses is the idea that it’s a moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place was created by based on.
There are three well known in the great pyramid cameras. The lowest part is cut at the base of the pyramid was built and was not completed. Chamber of the pyramid structure of the King and Queen are high in the name of the great pyramid Giza Egypt. Only pyramid is ascending and descending passages. Most of the Giza complex is an institution of buildings that included two funeral home in honor of Khufu temples (a close relative of the pyramid) and one near the Nile, three children for women pyramids of Cheops, an even smaller “satellite” pyramid, a road high, connecting the two temples and tombs mastaba small around the pyramid for nobles.
History and description
It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu and was built over a period of 20 years. Khufu the vizier, Hemon, or Cheops, is considered by some as the architect of the great pyramid. Believed that, when buildings, the great originally 280 Egyptian pyramid built cubits long, 146.5 meters (480, 6 feet was) but with erosion and the lack of its pyramid ion, its current 138,8 455.4 miles. Each base side was 440 cubits, 230,4 meters (755,9 feet) in length and the mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tons. The volume, including a mound of inmates, is approximately 2 500 000 cubic meters (88, 000, 000 cubic meters). On the basis of the estimate, you must install approximately 800 tones to build 20 years of Pierre every day.
In addition, because consists of approximately 2.3 million blocks, completion of the building in 20 years would involve a moving average of more than 12 of the blocks in place every hour, day and night. The first measurements of accuracy of the pyramid were created by the Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie in 1880-82 and published under the title the pyramids and temples of Giza. Almost all of the reports are based on your measurements. The majority of domestic dwellings and fourth block stones of the great pyramid were equipped in addition to very high precision. On the basis of measurements in the North Eastern casing stones, the mean opening of joints is only 0.5 mm (1/50 of an inch) wide.
The pyramid remained in the world’s largest artificial structure over 3,800 years, unsurpassed until the arrow on 160 meters (520 ft) of Lincoln Cathedral was completed around 1300. The accuracy of the handicrafts of the pyramid is such that all four sides of the base of an average error of only 58 millimeters in length. The base is horizontal and flat ± 15 mm (0.6 inches). The sides of the square base are closely related to the four cardinal points (less than four minutes of ARC) compass based on true North, not magnetic north, and the finite basis was raised on the square by an error of the average angle of only 12 seconds of arc. The dimensions of the finished design, as suggested in its opening Petrie survey and subsequent studies, it is estimated by 440 cubits long originally 280 Ellen hoog in each of the four sides of the base. The ratio of the circumference to the height of 1760/280 cubits amounted to 2π with a precision better than 0.05% (corresponding to the known approximation of π as 22/7). Some Egyptologists consider to they have been the result of a deliberate part. Verner wrote, “we can conclude that although the value of π is not defined by the ancient Egyptians, in practice they are used “. Petri, the pyramids of Giza and the temples of the author: “but these relations of areas and circular ratio are so systematic that the developer was in the design are performed. Others have argued that the ancient Egyptians didn’t have any notion of pi and you would have not thought to encode it in its monuments. They believe that the slope of the pyramid observed can rely on a simple choice of slope Meidoem only, without making reference to the total size and the proportions of the building.
Chamber of Mistress
Queen’s Chamber to the North and South faces of the pyramid exactly halfway between and 5.75 meters (18.9 feet) to measure North-South, 5.23 m (17.2) is to the West and a parquet flooring on top of an apex 6.23 billion (20.4 meters) with enhanced on the East end of the room is a niche 4.67 m in height (15.3) is the depth of the original niche was 1.04 (3.4 m)But since then the worse has been done by treasure hunters. In the walls of the North and South of the axes of camera of the Queen, which, unlike those of the House of the King immediately, horizontal by about 2 meters (6.6 feet) ramp for inclined upward.
The great Hall of the great pyramid of Giza
The Grand Gallery continues the slope of the ascending passage, but 8.6 m (28 ft) is high and 46,68 m (153,1 ft), at the foot of the 2.06 meters (6.8 feet) wide, but after 2.29 meters (7.5 feet), the blocks of stone in the walls are excellent inwards by 7.6 cm (3.0 inch) on each side. Seven of these steps, then at the top of the Grand Gallery there is only 1.04 meters (3.4 meters) wide. It is covered with slabs of stone placed in a slight angle steeper than the floor of the Gallery, so that each stone in a slot cut in the upper part of the gallery as the teeth of a ratchet wrench fits. The goal was for each block supported by the wall of the gallery rather than resting in the block below, which would have led to unacceptable pressure accumulated in the bottom of the gallery.
The House of the King
Chamber of the King is 10.47 m (34.4 ft) in the East to the West and 5 234 (17,17 m) North to South. It has a flat roof 5 974 meters (19.60) above the floor. 0.91 m (3. 0 meters) above the floor there are two narrow wells within the North and South (one now is occupied by a fan exhaust fan to circulate air in the pyramid). The purpose of these trees is not clear: they seem to be aligned on stars or areas of the sky in the North and the South, but one of them follows a dog – course leg through Freemasonry, which has not directly intended to see stars of represents the. They have been for a long time by Egyptologists as ‘trees for air’ for ventilation, but this idea is now largely abandoned in favor of the trees part serves as a ritual use of the ascension of the spirit of the King towards the sky is associated.
Today tourists enter by the great pyramid robbers tunnel during the first intermediate period was already dug, or new and reopened by workers during the period of the Caliph al-Ma ‘ by mun employed author AD 820. Tunnel is approximately 27 meters (89 ft) to pyramid is cut straight through the masonry of to find the stones blocking the fast left turn. This strong disorder gives thieves need to know about interior architecture. Impossible to remove these stones however workers dug up with them through the softer limestone pyramid until they reached the ascending passage. It is possible to pass from this time, but usually not allowed access.